Tag Archive for: Sri Aurobindo

Captive of Her Love by Janina Stroka

Longings for the Mother

This book is a collection of letters, poems and paintings by Janina Stroka, a Polish disciple of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother and a member of the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in Pondicherry, India, from 1957 until her passing in 1964. It is a truly fascinating book that should interest readers of many backgrounds and persuasions. Employing a primarily epistolary mode, through the use of letters, it combines several interesting categories as well: spiritual travelogue, quest narrative, period history and East-West encounter. Above all, it bridges the gap between the falsity of public image vis a vis the reality of our private self.

Janina’s account of her life in Pondicherry in this book is divided into three parts. The main part of the text consists of extracts from letters written to a Dutch friend with whom Janina lived first in Palestine and later in Germany, from December 1957 to June 1958. The letters in the next section were written between 1960 and 1963 to a young Bengali, a writer and social worker. Next, the book contains selected poems and paintings by Janina and concludes with a comment by the Mother on Janina’s passing.

All of these provide an invaluable glimpse into Janina’s inner life in the Ashram, no less than her observation of the details of the seemingly trivial but no less significant aspects of the day to day life in the Ashram and Pondicherry during the late fifties and early sixties. We find, for instance, a perceptive description of meal-time atmosphere in the Dining Room. Those who habitually crib against the Dining Room food would do well to see Janina’s sense of reverence towards this food (“We always get two bananas and a wonderful yoghurt, just a dream!”). She talks memorably of a number of events and impressions of the supramental force spread over Pondicherry, vis a vis the ubiquitous presence of the town’s dirt, filth and squalour; about “bad people in the Ashram”; regarding the problem with maid-servants, their perpetual intrigues and the need to constantly humour them in order to extract work out of their reluctant selves and so on. She also records her encounters with Pavitrada, Nolinida and Medhananda and the quota of luscious mangoes from Bombay that she receives from X, a friend: “What a pity that I do not have a husband” she observes with self-deprecating humour.

Janina reveals in her engrossing accounts that despite their rootedness in reason, science and rationality, (or perhaps because of it!) a dedicated westerner, drawn powerfully to spirituality, is likely to blossom more fully vis a vis his/her eastern counterparts. Her life — full of ordeals, hardships and agony — is testimony to the indomitable human spirit forever in search of the deepest meaning of life. Her narrative offers us a lesson in humility.

(from book review by Dr Sachidananda Mohanty)

Book Details

Author: Janina Stroka
Print Length: 106
Publisher: Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Book format: Pdf, ePub, Mobi
Language: English
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Longings for the Mother by Indra Sen

Longings for the Mother

I learned of the Mother’s passing on the morning of the 18th November, 1973 at Sri Aurobindo Yoga Mandir, Jwalapur (Hardwar), where my normal work lies as given by the Mother in 1958. The impulse that arose within me was to go deep within and be with the Mother to the best of my capacity. I reduced my external preoccupations to the minimum and began to live in that manner and it was profoundly satisfying. In this experience, there were occasional moments of shock and grief too but, on the whole, there was a feeling of inner assurance and a sense of contact and conversation with the Mother. On the morning of the 27th November, as I sat in this contemplation, a move arose to concretise the inner thought and feeling and I wrote out “Our Mother, who is no more, who is ever more.” Soon all the ten topics ending with “Mother, we read again Your ‘Notes on the Way’” came along. And I read these again and again and enjoyed doing so. I began to do this day after day. I felt that this tended to deepen my inner contact. The next three pieces were written on the following three days, a piece per day. Then I had to go on a short journey and, for about a fortnight, there was no writing. About the middle of December, the writing was resumed and the remaining six pieces were written out. The entire writing was done, on the whole, with ease and simplicity.

To me, all this served to clarify and strengthen an inner contact with the Mother. Many friends, who have read these pieces in typescript, have felt deeply moved and found in varying degrees a greater inner contact.

Book Details

Author: Indra Sen
Print Length: 43
Publisher: Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Book format: Pdf, ePub, Mobi
Language: English
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To Thee Our Infinite Gratitude (Writings on the Passing of Sri Aurobindo)

To Thee Our Infinite Gratitude

Writings on the Passing of Sri Aurobindo

A series of essays written in commemoration of Sri Aurobindo’s passing. The words of Amal Kiran, Udar and K.R.S.Iyengar give us a vast spiritual, psychological and factual perspective of the event, greatly helping us to understand several aspects of the Yoga of Sri Aurobindo, the young American scholar Rhoda P. Le Cocq’s account of the last Darshan of the Master and the Mother unveils that aspect of the power of Grace which so smoothly and silently demolishes the wall of scepticism one had maintained around oneself for long. The compilation brings us a serene calm and an intense feeling of gratitude, and reminds us that:

Death is a stair, a door, a stumbling stride
The soul must take to cross from birth to birth,
A grey defeat pregnant with victory,
A whip to lash us towards our deathless state.


Book Details

Author: Nirodbaran, Dr. Prabhat Sanyal, Amal Kiran, Udar Pinto, Pavitra, K.R.S. Iyengar, Rhoda P. Le Cocq
Print Length: 100
Publisher: Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Book format: Pdf, ePub, Mobi
Language: English
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The Mother Abides – Final Reflections

The Mother Abides
Final Reflections (1973–1983)

by Nolini Kanta Gupta

These thoughts and reminiscences of Nolini Kanta Gupta were written or spoken during the final decade of his life — from the time of the Mother’s passing in November 1973 until shortly before his own passing in February 1984. During that period they served as a source of guidance and consolation to the Ashram community, and they still seem relevant today.

Many of these writings and talks were first presented to the students, young and old, of Nolini-da’s classes. Later they were published in The Advent, a quarterly journal he edited, or in his Collected Works. Details about their publication and a life-sketch of the author are given at the end of the book.

Book Details

Author: Nolini Kanta Gupta
Print Length: 77
Publisher: Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Book format: Pdf, ePub, Mobi
Language: English
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My Friend and Master by C.C. Dutt

My Friend and Master

A Memoir by C.C. Dutt

The book “My Friend and Master” is a personal account of Sri Aurobindo’s pre-Ashram days told by C.C.Dutt, who had been a revolutionary comrade and later became a spiritual disciple of Sri Aurobindo in his ashram. C.C. Dutt’s memoir carries the unmistakable direct presence of the Guide and Master and vivid experience that can only occur in the immediate closeness to the Guru. It will be of a great interest to all those who have been guided on their spiritual paths by Sri Aurobindo’s words and presence. C.C. Dutt’s memoir “My Friend and Master” was originally published in “Sri Aurobindo Circle” Eighth Number, 1952

Book Details

Author: C.C. Dutt
Print Length: 34
Publisher: Auro e-Books
Original source: http://auromaa.org/my-friend-and-my-master-charu-chandra-dutt-part-2/
Book format: Pdf, ePub, Mobi
Language: English
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A Comparative Study of the Educational Philosophies of Sri Aurobindo and Maria Montessori

A Comparative Study of the Educational Philosophies
of Sri Aurobindo and Maria Montessori

In 1975, Aleta You Mastny wrote this dissertation, “A Comparative Study of the Educational Philosophies of Sri Aurobindo and Maria Montessori”, as a part of the requirements for her Doctor of Philosophy degree. In this paper, Mastny presents a detailed examination of the educational philosophies of two important pioneers in the field of childhood education.

Maria Montessori was a truly remarkable woman who was born in August 31, 1870, and was educated in Italy. Beginning her higher education in the field of engineering, she later switched to medicine. After earning her medical degree, she becoming an expert in pediatric medicine and went on to conceptualize her own methods of applying the educational theories first put forth by French physicians Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard and Édouard Séguin. Her success in education came form her application of a religious, if not wholly spiritual, perspective, to the practical knowledge she developed in close observation of childhood development.

Sri Aurobindo was a most remarkable man born in India on August 15, 1872 and classically educated in England. When he returned to India, he fought for the independence of India as a political leader and went on to become a well respected spiritual leader, establishing an ashram with his collaborator, Mira Alfassa (The Mother). While overseeing a growing community in the ashram, Sri Aurobindo and The Mother developed and implemented their own ideas about childhood education.

In this insightful paper, Mastny finds many important parallels between Montessori’s theories and those of Sri Aurobindo. Despite the scholarly form of this dissertation, fans and followers of Sri Aurobindo are sure to find this work interesting. It also has a five-page bibliography.

Book Details

Author: Aleta You Mastny
Print Length: 145
Publisher: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
Submitted by: Blindshiva
Book format: Pdf
Language: English
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Talks with Sri Aurobindo by Nirodbaran (Volume 1 and 2)

Talks with Sri Aurobindo

On the eve of the November Darshan Day in 1938, the hostile forces finally managed to strike a heavy blow against Sri Aurobindo. In the wee, dark, hours of the morning, Sri Aurobindo “stumbled” over a tiger skin rug in his apartment and struck his right knee upon the skull of the tiger, causing a fracture of his right femur. However, as these two volumes of Talks with Sri Aurobindo recorded by Nirodbaran will attest, the attempt by the forces of Darkness to silence Sri Aurobindo actually had the opposite effect, creating an opportunity for a handful of disciples and others to engage in a free flowing, wide-ranging, informal and open inquiry into the Master’s thinking and teaching which would never have happened otherwise. Collected here, we have the reminisces, musings and discussions of that band of men who were fortunate enough to be there at the right time and place to make this intimate atmosphere among seekers of Truth possible. These conversations stretched over a period of nearly twelve years, bringing these men ever closer to each other and closer to the light.

Book Details

Author: Nirodbaran
Print Length: Volume 1 – 514p., Volume 2 – 517p.
Publisher: Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Submitted by: Blindshiva
Book format: Pdf, ePub, mobi (Kindle)
Language: English
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Weekly Readings in Savitri – an Invitation to a Journey

Dear friends,

Website AuroMaa.org have started publication of “Weekly Readings in Savitri”, which Dr Alok Pandey has kindly agreed to make available to all Savitri readers.

For the next 5-7 years, every Tuesday a new Weekly Reading will be posted, each containing 2 to 3 pages of the original poem (using a standard edition as in Vol 33-34 of the Complete Works of Sri Aurobindo), together with a passage-by-passage summary.

The following passage describes the author’s intention behind this labor of love:

… [Savitri], a revelation coming from the very highest summits of consciousness and embodying the sublimest and subtlest Wisdom and Power, is best received as a gift of Grace. It cannot be the subject of mental analysis and speculation, for the Truth it embodies comes from far above the mind. Hence we do not intend to offer any ‘explanations’ or ‘analytical understanding’ of Savitri through these pages. What we do intend is to share the joy of Savitri and the insights that are received by all who deeply engage with this wonderful word-body of Sri Aurobindo.

Surely there is no one single way of understanding or engaging with this ‘scripture’ even as there is no one single exclusive approach to the Divine. It is left to each one of us to discover the delight of these unique and powerful revelations that pour through the luminous pages of Savitri. But surely when each of these ‘delights’ meet and come together, it multiplies the joy divine upon Earth and adds to the breath of God upon our lives. It is with this intention and as a humble offering at the feet of the Divine Mother that we have initiated this project, this work on Savitri. Its justification is simply that we are moved by an inner inspiration to do so. Its fulfillment is to facilitate and deepen our engagement with Savitri.

It is with this prayer that we embark upon this project as an offering of love and leave it in Her hands to see what purpose it serves in the grand scheme of things. Let us then dive deep into the fathomless ocean of Light called Savitri and loose ourselves in its limitless delight.

Alok Pandey
Pondicherry, Oct 24, 2016

Life Divine free ebook by Sri Aurobindo (pdf, epub, kindle)

Life Divine free ebook by Sri Aurobindo (pdf, epub, kindle)

The Life Divine free ebook

The Life Divine free ebook by Sri Aurobindo combines a synthesis of western thought and eastern spirituality with Sri Aurobindo’s own original insights. The Life Divine covers topics such as the human aspiration, the emergence of life in the cosmos from out of a Divine Source, the evolution of matter to spirit in the universe, the division and dualities inherent in human consciousness, the way out of man’s ignorance through an evolution of consciousness, and the spiritual destiny of life on earth.

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Isha Upanishad

Isha Upanishad by Sri Aurobindo


Translated by Sri Aurobindo in “Arya” August 1914
(With transcription of the original text in Sanskrit and notes of the translator)

īśā vāsyamidaḿ sarvaṁ yat kiñca jagatyāṁ jagat ǀ
tena tyaktena bhuñjīthā mā gṛdhaḥ kasya sviddhanam ǁ

  1. All this is for habitation1 by the Lord, whatsoever is individual universe of movement in the universal motion. By that renounced thou shouldst enjoy; lust not after any man’s possession.


kurvanneveha karmāṇi jijīviṣecchataḿ samāḥ ǀ
evaṁ tvayi nānyatheto’sti na karma lipyate nare ǁ

  1. Doing verily2 works in this world one should wish to live a hundred years. Thus it is in thee and not otherwise than this; action cleaves not to a man. 3


asūryā nāma te lokā andhena tamasā’’vṛtāḥ ǀ
tāḿste pretyābhigacchanti ye ke cātmahano janāḥ ǁ

  1. Sunless4 are those worlds and enveloped in blind gloom whereto all they in their passing hence resort who are slayers of their souls.


anejadekaṁ manaso javīyo nainaddevā āpnuvan pūrvamarṣat ǀ
taddhāvato’nyānatyeti tiṣṭhat tasminnapo mātariśvā dadhāti ǁ

  1. One unmoving that is swifter than Mind, That the Gods reach not, for It progresses ever in front. That, standing, passes beyond others as they run. In That the Master of Life5 establishes the Waters. 6


tadejati tannaijati tad dūre tadvantike ǀ
tadantarasya sarvasya tadu sarvasyāsya bāhyataḥ ǁ

  1. That moves and That moves not; That is far and the same is near; That is within all this and That also is outside all this.


yastu sarvāṇi bhūtāni ātmanyevānupaśyati ǀ
sarvabhūteṣu cātmānaṁ tato na vijugupsate ǁ

  1. But he who sees everywhere the Self in all existences and all existences in the Self, shrinks not thereafter from aught.


yasmin sarvāṇi bhūtāni ātmaivābhūd vijānataḥ ǀ
tatra ko mohaḥ kaḥ śoka ekatvamanupaśyataḥ ǁ

  1. He in whom it is the Self-Being that has become all existences that are Becomings7 for he has the perfect knowledge, how shall he be deluded, whence shall he have grief who sees everywhere oneness?


sa paryagācchukramakāyamavraṇamasnāviraṁ śuddhamapāpaviddham ǀ
kavirmanīṣī paribhūḥ svayambhur yāthātathyato’rthān vyadadhācchāśvatībhyaḥ samābhyaḥ ǁ

  1. It is He that has gone abroad — That which is bright, bodiless, without scar of imperfection, without sinews, pure, unpierced by evil. The Seer, the Thinker,8 the One who becomes everywhere, the Self-existent has ordered objects perfectly according to their nature from years sempiternal.


andhaṁ tamaḥ praviśanti ye’vidyāmupāsate ǀ
tato bhūya iva te tamo ya u vidyāyāḿ ratāḥ ǁ

  1. Into a blind darkness they enter who follow after the Ignorance, they as if into a greater darkness who devote themselves to the Knowledge alone.


anyadevāhurvidyayā’nyadāhuravidyayā ǀ
iti śuśruma dhīrāṇāṁ ye nastadvicacakṣire ǁ

  1. Other, verily,9 it is said, is that which comes by the Knowledge, other that which comes by the Ignorance; this is the lore we have received from the wise who revealed That to our understanding.


vidyāñcāvidyāñca yastadvedobhayaḿ saha ǀ
avidyayā mṛtyuṁ tīrtvā vidyayā’mṛtamaśnute ǁ

  1. He who knows That as both in one, the Knowledge and the Ignorance, by the Ignorance crosses beyond death and by the Knowledge enjoys Immortality.


andhaṁ tamaḥ praviśanti ye’sambhūtimupāsate ǀ
tato bhūya iva te tamo ya u sambhūtyāḿ ratāḥ ǁ

  1. Into a blind darkness they enter who follow after the Non-Birth, they as if into a greater darkness who devote themselves to the Birth alone.


anyadevāhuḥ sambhavādanyadāhurasambhavāt ǀ
iti śuśruma dhīrāṇāṁ ye nastadvicacakṣire ǁ

  1. Other, verily, it is said, is that which comes by the Birth, other that which comes by the Non-Birth; this is the lore we have received from the wise who revealed That to our understanding.


sambhūtiñca vināśañca yastadvedobhayaḿ saha ǀ

vināśena mṛtyuṁ tīrtvā sambhūtyā’mṛtamaśnute ǁ

  1. He who knows That as both in one, the Birth and the dissolution of Birth, by the dissolution crosses beyond death and by the Birth enjoys Immortality.


hiraṇmayena pātreṇa satyasyāpihitaṁ mukham ǀ
tat tvaṁ pūṣannapāvṛṇu satyadharmāya dṛṣṭaye ǁ

  1. The face of Truth is covered with a brilliant golden lid; that do thou remove, O Fosterer,10 for the law of the Truth, for sight.


pūṣannekarṣe yama sūrya prājāpatya vyūha raśmīn samūha ǀ
tejo yat te rūpaṁ kalyāṇatamaṁ tatte paśyāmi
yo’sāvasau puruṣaḥ so’hamasmi ǁ

  1. O Fosterer, O sole Seer, O Ordainer, O illumining Sun, O power of the Father of creatures, marshal thy rays, draw together thy light; the Lustre which is thy most blessed form of all, that in Thee I behold. The Purusha there and there, He am I.


vāyuranilamamṛtamathedaṁ bhasmāntaḿ śarīram ǀ
OM krato smara kṛtaḿ smara krato smara kṛtaḿ smara ǁ

  1. The Breath of things11 is an immortal Life, but of this body ashes are the end. OM! O Will,12 remember, that which was done remember! O Will, remember, that which was done, remember.


agne naya supathā rāye asmān viśvāni deva vayunāni vidvān ǀ
yuyodhyasmajjuhurāṇameno bhūyiṣṭhāṁ te namauktiṁ vidhema ǁ

  1. O god Agni, knowing all things that are manifested, lead us by the good path to the felicity; remove from us the devious attraction of sin. 13 To thee completest speech of submission we would dispose. 14

1 There are three possible senses of vasyam, “to be clothed”, “to be worn as a garment” and “to be inhabited”. The first is the ordinarily accepted meaning. Shankara explains it in this significance, that we must lose the sense of this unreal objective universe in the sole perception of the pure Brahman. So explained the first line becomes a contradiction of the whole thought of the Upanishad which teaches the reconciliation, by the perception of essential Unity, of the apparently incompatible opposites. God and the World, Renunciation and Enjoyment, Action and internal Freedom, the One and the Many, Being and its Becomings, the passive divine Impersonality and the active divine Personality, the Knowledge and the Ignorance, the Becoming and the Not-Becoming, Life on earth and beyond and the supreme Immortality. The image is of the world either as a garment or as a dwelling-place for the informing and governing Spirit. The latter significance agrees better with the thought of the Upanishad.

2 Kurvanneva. The stress of the word eva gives the force, “doing works indeed, and not refraining from them”.

3 Shankara reads the line, “Thus in thee — it is not otherwise than thus — action cleaves not to a man.” He interprets karmani in the first line in the sense of Vedic sacrifices which are permitted to the ignorant as a means of escaping from evil actions and their results and attaining to heaven, but the second karma in exactly the opposite sense, “evil action”. The verse, he tells us, represents a concession to the ignorant; the enlightened soul abandons works and the world and goes to the forest. The whole expression and construction in this rendering become forced and unnatural. The rendering I give seems to me the simple and straightforward sense of the Upanishad.

4 We have two readings, asūryāh. sunless, and asuryāh, Titanic or undivine. The third verse is, in the thought structure of the Upanishad, the starting-point for the final movement in the last four verses. Its suggestions are there taken up and worked out. The prayer to the Sun refers back in thought to the sunless worlds and their blind gloom, which are recalled in the ninth and twelfth verses. The sun and his rays are intimately connected in other Upanishads also with the worlds of Light and their natural opposite is the dark and sunless, not the Titanic worlds.

5 Mātariśvan seems to mean “he who extends himself in the Mother or the container” whether that be the containing mother element, Ether, or the material energy called Earth in the Veda and spoken of there as the Mother. It is a Vedic epithet of the God Vayu, who, representing the divine principle in the Life-energy, Prana, extends himself in Matter and vivifies its forms. Here it signifies the divine Life-power that presides in all forms of cosmic activity.

6 Apas, as it is accentuated in the version of the White Yajurveda, can mean only “waters”. If this accentuation is disregarded, we may take it as the singular apas, work, action. Shankara, however, renders it by the plural, works. The difficulty only arises because the true Vedic sense of the word had been forgotten and it came to be taken as referring to the fourth of the five elemental states of Matter, the liquid. Such a reference would be entirely irrelevant to the context. But the Waters, otherwise called the seven streams or the seven fostering Cows, are the Vedic symbol for the seven cosmic principles and their activities, three inferior, the physical, vital and mental, four superior, the divine Truth, the divine Bliss, and divine Will and Consciousness, and the divine Being. On this conception also is founded the ancient idea of the seven worlds in each of which the seven principles are separately active by their various harmonies. This is, obviously, the right significance of the word in the Upanishad.

7 The words sarvāṇi bhūtāni literally, “all things that have become”, is opposed to Atman, self-existent and immutable being. The phrase means ordinarily “all creatures”, but its literal sense is evidently insisted on in the expression bhūtāni abhūt “became the Becomings”. The idea is the acquisition in man of the supreme consciousness by which the one Self in him extends itself to embrace all creatures and realises the eternal act by which that One manifests itself in the multiple forms of the universal motion.

8 There is a clear distinction in Vedic thought between kavi, the seer and manīṣī, the thinker. The former indicates the divine supra-intellectual Knowledge which by direct vision and illumination sees the reality, the principles and the forms of things in their true relations, the latter, the labouring mentality, which works from the divided consciousness through the possibilities of things downward to the actual manifestation in form and upward to their reality in the self-existent Brahman.

9 Anyadeva — eva here gives to anyad the force, “Quite other than the result described in the preceding verse is that to which lead the Knowledge and the Ignorance.” We have the explanation of anyad in the verse that follows. The ordinary rendering, “Knowledge has one result. Ignorance another”, would be an obvious commonplace announced with an exaggerated pompousness, adding nothing to the thought and without any place in the sequence of the ideas.

10 In the inner sense of the Veda Surya, the Sun-God, represents the divine Illumination of the Kavi which exceeds mind and forms the pure self-luminous Truth of things. His principal power is self-revelatory knowledge, termed in the Veda, “Sight”. His realm is described as the Truth, the Law, the Vast. He is the Fosterer or Increaser, for he enlarges and opens man’s dark and limited being into a luminous and infinite consciousness. He is the sole Seer, Seer of Oneness and Knower of the Self, and leads him to the highest Sight. He is Yama, Controller or Ordainer for he governs man’s action and manifested being by the direct Law of the Truth, satya-dharma, and therefore by the right principle of our nature, yāthā-tathyatah, a luminous power proceeding from the Father of all existence, he reveals in himself the divine Purusha of whom all beings are the manifestations. His rays are the thoughts that proceed luminously from the Truth, the Vast, but become deflected and distorted, broken up and disordered in the reflecting and dividing principle. Mind. They form there the golden lid which covers the face of the Truth. The Seer prays to Surya to cast them into right order and relation and then draw them together into the unity of revealed truth. The result of this inner process is the perception of the oneness of all beings in the divine Soul of the Universe.

11 Vayu, called elsewhere Matarishwan, the Life-Energy in the universe. In the light of Surya he reveals himself as an immortal principle of existence of which birth and death and life in the body are only particular and external processes.

12 The Vedic term kratu means sometimes the action itself, sometimes the effective power behind action represented in mental consciousness by the will. Agni is this power. He is divine force which manifests first in matter as heat and light and material energy and then, taking different forms in the other principles of man’s consciousness, leads him by a progressive manifestation upwards to the Truth and the Bliss.

13 Sin, in the conception of the Veda, from which this verse is taken bodily, is that which excites and hurries the faculties into deviation from the good path. There is a straight road or road of naturally increasing light and truth, rjuḥ panthāh, ṛtasya panthāḥ, leading over infinite levels and towards infinite vistas, vitā p̣rṣṭhā, by which the law of our nature should normally take us towards our fulfilment. Sin compels it instead to travel with stumblings amid uneven and limited tracts and along crooked windings (duritāni, vṛjināni).

14 The word vidhema is used of the ordering of the sacrifice, the disposal of the offerings to the God and, generally, of the sacrifice or worship itself. The Vedic namas, internal and external obeisance, is the symbol of submission to the divine Being in ourselves and in the world. Here the offering is that of completest submission and the self-surrender of all the faculties of the lower egoistic human nature to the divine Will-force, Agni, so that, free from internal opposition, it may lead the soul of man through the truth towards a felicity full of the spiritual riches, rāye. That state of beatitude is the intended self-content in the principle of pure Love and Joy, which the Vedic initiates regarded as the source of the divine existence in the universe and the foundation of the divine life in the human being. It is the deformation of this principle by egoism which appears as desire and the lust of possession in the lower worlds.